Sunday, May 24, 2020
Inequality: Race, Crime, and the Law Policing and punishment in America is hardly colorblind. It is not a coincidence that minorities serve longer sentences, have higher arrest and conviction rates, face higher bail amounts, and are more often the victims of police use of deadly force than white citizens. When it comes to criminals, many people have a preconception of what a criminal is. Usually when people think of a criminal they picture a Black or Latino face. The thought of an Asian criminal is often related to Asian gangs. Interestingly enough, White people as a group are rarely associated with the thought of crime, even though they account for 70% of arrests and 40% of the prison population each year (Russel xiv). This seems to beÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Police brutality is known to be very common in the Bronx. With situations such as this one as well as the Rodney King incident in Los Angeles, Blacks have become to fear the police. When a police car approaches them, they cant decide whether justice will be served or if the cops intentions are to harm or even kill them. The integrity of a police officer is not guaranteed to the citizen. In past cases police have been known to plant fake evidence simply to have a reason to arrest a suspect. As a result, African-Americans make up about 12% of the general population, but more than half of the prison population (Cole 4). With so much injustice being done to minorities in general, how can you expect minorities to respect a system that doesnt respect them? In fact, people are so quick to believe minorities are criminals that they are used as fake suspects by citizens who want to hide the real criminals. Racial Hoaxes are defined as: When someone fabricates a crime and blames it on another person because of his race OR when an actual crime has been committed and the perpetrator falsely blames someone because of his race. (Russel 70) The negative image of African-Americans has become so bad that imaginary Black people are invented as criminals. In some cases Black individuals were even chosen out of a lineShow MoreRelatedJustice Is Unfair Or Unjust?1189 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWhen one hears the word, justice, one would think of the courts and how people are dealt out punishment based on the law. One may also think of several court cases where the outcome may have been unfair or unjust. It is interesting how justice is perceived by people as justice can mean several things to people, like what is true justice? How is a sentence deemed fair? Most people believe that true justice is when a sentence is given to someone and that the sentence chosen is in line with the crimeRead MoreAfrican Americans And The Criminal Jus tice System Essay1688 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesways the criminal justice system plays a huge role in the discrimination against all people of color. Mostly, there are a wide range of studies within the African American communities that expresses concern, prejudice, and even racial profiling in the criminal justice system pertaining to blacks. Judges, jurors, police officers, and even marriages are key roles of the societal disadvantages African Americans have. African Americans are even being arrested more than any other race in America. WithRead MoreSocialization Techniques Of African American Male Within The Criminal Justice System1325 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescriminal justice system are vastly dissimilar in comparison to their white counterparts. The dominant socialization indifference is theoretically associated with Marxist Criminology schools of thought, in particular conflict theory. Qualitative, empirical, and historical data supports Marxist criminology based on capitalism, con flict, and the disparity treatment of the Afro-American male within the criminal justice system: police, courts, and corrections. This research will address how capitalismRead MoreJust Mercy By Bryan Stevenson1098 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesracial inequality and unfair convictions. The most prominent case in the novel is about a man named Walter McMillian who was unjustly convicted of a murder charge and sentenced to death row. Throughout the story, it is apparent that McMillianÃ¢â¬â¢s case was more complicated than just racial profiling because it was entangled with deception. The unlawful behavior executed by law officials: judges, lawyers, police officers, to indict Walter McMillian counteracts the basis of the system of which judicial officialsRead MoreModern World s Highest Incarceration Rate1341 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesinjustice and inequality, and a diversion from true rehabilitation and fair punishment, that is all distracted by the prison industrial complex, politics, and profi ts. This mass incarceration, and the Ã¢â¬Å"prison-industrial complexÃ¢â¬ causes the U.S. to seem unfair and harsh, and possibly motivated for the punishment of itÃ¢â¬â¢s people. Perhaps a huge proponent of mass incarceration is the prison industrial complex or PIC. This is a suggested group that is motivated by money and other benefits to keep prisonsRead MoreWhy Minorities Are Being Treated As Criminals By Police And The Justice System Based On Ethnic Background1528 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages(Griffiths Murdoch, 2014). The critical analysis of crime and criminal justice as social constructs uphold social, racial, political and economic inequalities. The injurious behaviours of the poor and racial minorities are more likely to be depicted as criminals rather than the actions of the rich and powerful. Using pluralist theories, this essay will examine how minorities are being treated as criminals by police and the justice system based on ethnic background. The main arguments developed throughoutRead More Is The Criminal Justice System Racially Biased? Essay1743 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Is the Criminal Justice System Racially Biased? Most criminologist use two sources of criminal justice data in the United States: the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and the National Crime Victimization Surveys (NCVS). The URC data is made from law enforcement agencies and include crime incidents reported to or obtained by the police. NCVS data is obtained from a very complex national survey of a sample of homes and provide information about crime incidents and victims for both reported and unreportedRead MoreHow Race Is Defined As An Ideology937 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdefined as an ideology that asserts the key to ending discrimination is to treat all individuals within society as equally as possible without regard to culture, race or ethnicity (Tarca, 2005). Attention must be given to the idea that race is a social construct. For the purposes of this paper, we will delve into topics that explore the idea that race is continually being refashioned by various political, social and cultural forces (Gallagher, 2012). For instance, long occurring abuses ofRead MorePolicing the Police: An Argument for Democratic Say in How People Are Policed Quenton King May600 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesSay in How People Are Policed Quenton King May 5, 2014 Dr. Wozniak SOCA 319 The role of police in their communities and society as a whole, is an interesting and unique position. They are citizens that are responsible for policing fellow, equal citizens and are the extensive arm of the government. Police are required to enforce laws set by the state, regardless of the effectiveness or rationality of the laws and any negative consequences they cause. These consequences often result in racialRead MoreHow Crime Affects The Community1536 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfunction of (How to avoid crime and conflict) day to day life by individuals. Communities take a hit when these kinds of situations are present within their boarders. Each community suffers individually though communities all suffer collectively. The process of policing ultimately revolves around meeting the needs in a manner of which serves the community in its efforts to sustain justice between deviants and non deviant members of the community. Community Crime Prevention is how communities take
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Fuel cells powered by hydrogen represent the latest technology in the push to reduce fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission. The internal combustion engineÃ¢â¬â¢s design limitations have been pushed to their limits and fuel economy has been maxed out. While a shift in consumer preference to smaller and more fuel efficient automobiles would decrease consumption and emissions, the economic model alone will not prompt such a change. The hydrogen fuel cellÃ¢â¬â¢s new technology calls for a radical change in design approaches that will test the automakers that choose to mass-produce this technology. The hydrogen harvesting methods required to power the fuel cells have environmental challenges. Regardless of the challenges, theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The push to design and develop different methods of propulsion for motor vehicles came only after petroleum solutions became exhausted. Emissions reduction policies and the rising price of oil forced automakers to pursue more fuel efficient vehicles and eventually alternatively fueled vehicles. While the hybrid electric vehicle and the plug-in electric car have proven to be more viable solutions in the near term, the need for hydrogen fuel cells will only increase. The technology behind hydrogen fuel cells is rather unremarkable, however, the difficulties and dangers created by the fuel cells will require extraordinary engineering. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s fuel cells use the same reverse electrolysis phenomena that GroveÃ¢â¬â¢s battery did over a century ago (Lampton). Hydrogen is ionized and passed through a membrane that separates the electrons from the hydrogen ions. The electrons are formed into an electrical current while the hydrogen ions react with the oxygen in the air to form water vapor, the heat generated by the reaction typically boils the water (Lampton). The catalyst and membrane can be tweaked and optimized by engineers to improve the technology but the basic principle will remain the same. Hydrogen fuel cells make up for the simplicity with a number of operational challenges facing applications in automobiles or other vehicles. A fuel cell costs between $50,000 and $100,000 and relies on a platinum catalystShow MoreRelatedEnergy Consumption And Its Effect On The Environment1660 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEnergy consumption is universal to all, in spite of the location in the world. Different countries and people consume different amounts of energy at any given time. Energy consumption ranges from small-scale to large-scale uses for different purposes. However, what is common to all despite the amount used is the impact of the consumption that cuts across every region. Among the most fundamental sources of energy used on regular basis, include oil, natural gas, and coal, which are fossil fuels. TheRead MoreTechnology Development Of The Automotive Industry And The Enhancement Of Fossil Fuel Alternatives1367 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe automotive industry and the enhancement of fossil fuel alternatives. With countries advancing their energy output the strain on natural resources is increasing, leading to finite resources which will no longer be a viable option in the near future. Research has been conducted and other options have been found some of which include Plug-in electric vehicles (PHEVs) and other electric or bio fuel alternatives. In the recent years energy consumption has been reduced in compression ignition engineRead MoreBiomass Essay1094 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe consumption of conventional energy fossil fuels. The objectives of this review report is to evaluate the processes how briquettes are produced from agricultural wastes/residues and To compare the intensity of greenhouse gas emission using briquettes of agricultural wastes/residues with other forms of energy sources especially fossil fuels. Thus agricultural residue biomass energy available for climate change mitigation by reducing the amount of greenhouse gases emission from using fossil fuelsRead MoreEnergy Choices Usa Vs. Brazil Essay1169 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesvs. Brazil There are about three universally used fuel sources for energy around the world which are: coal, oil, and natural gas. There has been a global increase in energy consumption throughout the world. Energy consumption is a topic that will impact the world. Greenhouse gasses are gasses that trap heat in the atmosphere, in turn, releasing carbon dioxide. This essay will discuss the common fuel sources, emissions, and total energy consumption by the United States and Brazil. 1. Compare theRead MoreGlobal Warming And Its Effects On Global Climate Change1302 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels.Ã¢â¬ In this essay, I am going to map out how copious amounts of energy consumption leads to climate change. The role of energy usage towards increasing or decreasing the rate of change in climate and causing global warming is a very controversial topic in this world which is experiencing exponential growth of population and economy. - research Fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas and oils have been the main source for fueling energyRead MoreEssay on The Threat of Global Warming1667 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessuch as industry and consumption of fossil fuels plus the increase in population and agriculture have played a big part in global warming. If something is not done soon the results could be very bad. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã By the middle of the twenty first century, there is evidence that the Earth will be warmer than it has been at any time in human history, and quite possibly since the end of the dinosaurs, some 65 billion years ago. If we stay at the rate we are now (fossil fuel consumption / growth in population)Read MoreGlobal Warming1677 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessuch as industry and consumption of fossil fuels plus the increase in population and agriculture have played a big part in global warming. If something is not done soon the results could be very bad. By the middle of the twenty first century, there is evidence that the Earth will be warmer than it has been at any time in human history, and quite possibly since the end of the dinosaurs, some 65 billion years ago. If we stay at the rate we our now (fossil fuel consumption / growth in population)Read MoreThe Problem Of Global Warming1718 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe rising global temperatures, the global warming has become more and more popular. In fact, it is a natural phenomenon, which has developed in recent decades due to human?s activities, such as burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. These actions will produce large amounts of greenhouse gas, which would cause the Earth s temperature go up so that the climate will change. More importantly, the Global warming melt all the world s glaciers and permafrost so that the level of the sea will go upRead MoreFossil Fuels : The Global Energy Problem1352 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAbstract For the past 100 years, fossil fuels have been the cornerstone of the world energy production. Oil is the most notable fossil fuel; however, coal and natural gas are also mainstream. Since global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces and the cause is from greenhouse gases, many look to renewable energy resources to resolve the environment and energy crisis. The Global Energy Problem For many years, the world has been in an ongoing debate andRead MoreEconomic Policy Options for Addressing Global Warming980 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestemperature of the earth is rising and that the greenhouse effect is the primary culprit. Greenhouse gases, like carbon dioxide, absorb significant amounts of outgoing radiation while also allowing incoming solar radiation, thereby warming the surface of the earth (Nordhaus 1993, p.12). There is little debate that human consumption of fossil fuels and use of chlorofluorocarbons, along with certain other gases like methane, has greatly increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which has directly
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The New Fuss About Civil Rights Movement Essays Civil Rights Movement Essays - Is it a Scam? Utilise the assistance of our service and don't be concerned about how you complete the school. Our customer support will gladly tell you whether there are any special offers at the present time, in addition to make sure you are getting the very best service our business can deliver. Our service is a superb option for those who have to order an assignment urgently. You should have your reasons, and our principal concern is that you find yourself getting an excellent grade. The Chronicles of Civil Rights Movement Essays There's a demand throughout the board that people from all walks of life ought to be in a position to enjoy equal rights. Even in business and industry sectors, they are given rights for equal participation regardless of their backgrounds. The movement's goal was supposed to decrease poverty for folks of all races. This movement played a critical part in highlighting problems such as inequality, discrimination and oppression. The Downside Risk of Civil Rights Movement Essays Naturally, this list isn't exhaustive, these are merely a few examples of the most well-known reasons students turn to writing services. As a consequence, such students start looking for the best essay help to be certain that their project is going to be produced at the maximal level in accord with all academic standards. Therefore, many students and employees decide to get inexpensive essay rather than writing it themselves. The cost of an essay rides on the quantity of effort the writer has to exert. While the completely free essays may give you inspiration for writing, they cannot be used `as is' because they won't satisfy your assignment's requirements. If you are in need of a period of an essay. Therefore, for your convenience, you have a superb chance to monitor the development of the assigned writer and make sure an essay will be ready in a timely way. Rumors, Deception and Civil Rights Movement Essays When hunger strikes, downtown Lexington delivers plenty of restaurants and cafes to select from. Today it's already not possible to imagine various sections for people of distinct races in subway or bus. In spite of the simple fact that slavery was abolished about 100 years back at that moment, people of color continued to be treated like they were worse than whites. Learn how to begin and earn a protest sign from home. The Argument About Civil Rights Movement Essays Today, African-American culture is often related to urban culture because of the high proportion of blacks residing in the inner cities and the influences of hip-hop culture. If you wish to be inspired, if you adore history, if you're from Cleveland, if you adore football-heck, if you're a human being, you're love this book since you'll relate to it and it can help you to conquer your own adversities. Secondly, sit-ins were happening all over the nation. Soon, there were sit-ins all around the nation. Civil Rights Movement Essays: the Ultimate Convenience! Completely free Civil Rights Movement essay samples are offered on FreeEssayHelp with no payment or registration. Bail denotes the procedure for depositing money so as to temporarily release someone from jail until trial proper. Some state laws were now above federal laws like restricting property for some use. Discrimination is the crucial focus of the majority of civil rights movement essay topics. 14Th amendment wasn't restricted to, text file. The law worked straight away. This law made it illegal to prevent somebody from voting due to their race. What the In-Crowd Won't Tell You About Civil Rights Movement Essays Nevertheless, tweaking common celebration ideas in ways that attract your intended audience may cause activities which not only increase awareness of black issues and contributions in the usa, but will also help strengthen community and cross-cultural understanding in a way that anyone may enjoy. All around the world, millions of people are able to speak to one another, expanding businesses and improving relationships that may not otherwise have survived across long distances. Regardless of culture, they are allowed equal opportunities. Black workers got an opportunity to locate jobs in various previously in accessible industries. Another strategy was supposed to fi ll up all the jails till there was not any room left. My theory is, strong folks don't require strong leaders, she explained. A society shouldn't be discouraged to absorb people from various backgrounds. A new wardrobe of ideas was what I had been looking for. There's no debating, therefore, that being in a quiet place is the ideal approach to imagine new thoughts and new methods of accomplishing a dream, however elusive that may have been previously. If nothing else, it is going to show you what you could do when you set your mind to it. Not everyone believed the exact things. Need to see them with the method of.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: How Important is the Rural Economy to the Growth agenda and what role does Planning have in facilitating Rural Development? Answer: Introduction Rural economy still the biggest driving force behind the success and growth of any economy, despite industries have helped the countries around the world to reach the stage they are right now. A shift in the planning dynamics has been happened and a renewed focus on the development of the rural economy has been initiated. A sustainable rural development planning is crucial that will be forming the necessary foundations of a strong and independent nation. If the most fundamental of the economic structure is not firm enough, the entire structure itself cannot withstand the pressure of the global economy and will eventually succumb to the growing issues. The focus must be lifted from the traditional urban-rural duality and have to look beyond that to understand how are the two aspects dependent upon each other to create a sustainable growth plan for the both. This paper looks into the importance of rural economy and tries to understand why is it so important to create a strong rural economy development so that the entire national economy is helped and a long-term sustainable model can be furnished. Different policies are dabbled with, to give the proper picture of the significance of the rural economy as a key driver for growth. Rural area growth agenda Definition of rural area The term rural area refers to the pastures of land that are not within the bounds of densely populated urban lands inside the perimeters of a city or town. Rural areas are not included in the urban definition and are traditionally large, open areas with sparsely populate places and only a few houses and normally are more dependent upon agriculture than any heavy industry. Most people who live in rural areas are in some way connected to farming and the agriculture industry (Chambers, 2014). Also, wildlife is more frequently found in the rural areas. despite the majority of the world population still living in the rural lands, the case is rapidly changing due to rapid urbanization across the planet. It is estimated that the urban population of the world will increase almost 2 billion by 2050. Another popular method of defining rural areas is by first gathering the criteria for defining what is urban and then identifying the rural areas simply by excluding the areas that do not fall under the category of urban lands. Unlike urban areas, the people who live in rural places have their homes and businesses far away from each other, whereas in urban areas the two are situated more closely. Explanation for growth agenda It is vital to plan for growth and sustainable development in the rural areas, because of the fact that it is the foundation of the economy as a whole. Over the last three decades, the focus of rural planning has shifted from a simplistic agriculture boosting way to incorporating wider areas of inclusive rural development that are take into consideration more aspects of rural life and also is aimed to make a plan which is much more sustainable (Cont et al., 2015). These new forms of planning encompass every aspect of the human development, like social, political and economic. Even until the later years of the 1970s, rural development was perceived to be synonymous with only increased productivity in the agricultural yield. However, the dimensions and the notions changed, when, in the 1980s, the World Bank defined rural development as a strategy that is designed to enhance the condition of the rural people and considered every possible meaning of the word and not only the agricultural part. New policies and plans began to emerge with this changed perception and rural planning eventually became a source of much academic and political debate, pertaining to the feasibility of the different ideas and theories (Holden, Linnerud Banister, 2017). Importance of rural economy Rural economy has been traditionally associated with agriculture and farming. With the new definition on rural development, new views were also developed on the same. Several factors were responsible for the shift of paradigm. There were growing concerns about the stark disparities in wealth and gross income inequalities over the last few decades and it was noticed that the poverty mostly spread in a more grievous manner in the rural areas, which had to be addressed immediately (Welford, 2013). Despite the fact that green revolution had dramatically changed the agricultural scenario in many of the developing countries and the annual yield of crops in many regions were flourish, giving numbers that had never been recorded before, the rural areas were still riddled with the malicious issues that entailed acute poverty and a lack of definitive planning. One major reason for this is the fact that green revolution mostly benefited the farmers who were not very poor and were mostly evident in the farm lands that were under irrigation. Furthermore, economists during this time had started to challenge the orthodox view on development, which ultimately resulted in the rejection of the GDP as the definite and absolute measure of development. The concept of inclusive rural growth is different from the traditional view of it in the major sense that growth, income or output indicators are not enough or sufficient for inclusive development, and it requires a wider range of parameters encompassing every aspect of human life and results in a collective growth, rather than only thinking about reducing the financial pressure (Griggs et al., 2013). Life quality in rural areas In any area, in order to retain the inhabitants, it must be ensured that the life quality, that is offered by the authorities and the city planners, is good enough so that people want to keep living in the same place. Even though the quality of life has increased significantly than what it used to be before, it is still deplorable when is compared against life quality in the urban localities. Provided, that there are many good sides of a rural life, but the disadvantages that are faced by the population far outweighs the advantages offered in rural landscapes (Wheeler Beatley, 2014). Quality of life is a multifaceted area which needs careful introspection so that an overall enhancement can be ensured. People from the rural areas, particularly the younger generation, leave those places for more urban locales because of different aspects like inadequate health service benefits, insufficient opportunities to avail educational services, lesser amount of jobs, an overall less cognitive a nd exciting social life. While planning for the development of the rural areas, it must be remembered that the rural areas all have their own distinct and diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds, which are vital to the identity of the nations of which they are a part of. These cultures must be promoted so that an increased attention is given to them and the life of the people living in the rural areas can be made to be better (Welford, 2013). In the developed countries, the picture of the rural life is not much different than the developing nations. However, a lesser disparity in the income levels remain, which can only be eradicated with better economic development of a country. The developing nations experience a much greater ordeal when it comes to plan an integrated rural development scheme (Imran, Alam Beaumont, 2014). Countries like India, which have diverse cultures and remote areas in virtually every part of the country, with absolutely contrasting cultural backgrounds, it is incredibly tough to make a plan that would be beneficial for all, as a uniform law or regulation is almost impossible to make in cases like these. Social harmony When it comes to solely looking into the social parity of the rural and urban localities, the contrast can often become too hard to digest and this can be one of the major drivers for a complete inclusive rural development plan. Despite being something like the foundation stone for the society or civilization in general, rural areas and farm lands often have to face the cold caress of poverty and the population there have no other choice but to migrate to urban areas where a better chance of a steady job can be availed and that means less chances of poverty and starvation, which is, still, a dire problem for the rural populace (Briassoulis, 2017). In terms of social harmony rural localities can be more integrated than the urban areas. the society is more integrated and often witnesses more harmony and peace than the urban counterpart. Regional economy Regional economy of the urban society is still in poorer condition than urban areas. in most cases, this results from the inexistence of any heavy industries in the rural places. The overall economic development has been the main driver for rural planning for decades and is still given the most importance. Roles of planning in facilitating development A pivotal change has happened in the recent times about the planning process. Considering that a higher number of people are now part of the urban populace than ever before, this had to be done so that the existing plans are not rendered obsolete and actually do benefit all the members of the society and incorporates the needs for every section of the population. The UN-habitat has reported that almost 54% of the world population is now urbanized and the number would only be growing in the coming years and hence published International Guidelines on Urban and Territorial Planning (IG-UTP) to facilitate in the planning process (Steurer Hametner, 2013). These guidelines act as a tool to promote sound urban and territorial planning around the world, based on universally agreed principles. These guidelines have been laid down with keeping in mind that the world rural population has almost doubled since 1950 and is now over three billion. In strictly traditional terms, planning has always been more concerned with urban areas, but has not totally ignored the rural-urban linkages, either. The interactions between the people, economic activity and environmental aspects of the two different areas and their interdependency has always been one of major factors that have shaped any form of development planning in the world. The emphasis that is currently given to urban development planning is easily understandable and has its roots in history (Wheeler Beatley, 2014). Most of the planning or the schools of planning have been rotating around one key event in history that had changed the communities and the societies across the world forever: the industrialization. This obviously changed the previously planning processes simply because the whole dynamics and the power structure of the society had changed, and thus was established the current ideas behind development planning (Ayre Callway, 2013). Most of the problems that cam e with industrialization were concentrated around the cities, which made it a necessity to have science-based specific plans that were mostly addressing the issues of the cities and not the rural areas. as urbanization increased, the economic, social and environmental conditions of the rural areas declined, which were also being given attention by these planning initiatives. Optimzer: Economy Growth Planning schemes for the rural areas are done keeping in mind many areas that are supposed to usher in sustainable development for these localities and not simply an increased productivity in agriculture. Without overall growth, the economy of the rural areas cannot be boosted and this can be achieved through promoting the prices of the agricultural crops and without invading rural lands with industrialization. There are several methods which can be used to ensure that the rural lands are being given the proper attention that they require (Chambers, 2014). One of the most widely used tool for this through optimizing the use of the land resources and using the available lands with efficiency. There are many factors that facilitate in the development of the rural economy, over which there kare debates among the economists, who give different sets of attributes that are most important to boost the economic growth in rural areas. there cannot be a generalised bundle which can be all enco mpassing and be perfectly concluded on the definitive factors. Investment: Planning schemes that are set to improve the land use in rural areas often result in heavy amounts of investments from organisations or other industries. These investements mean that the rural areas ae flooded with money that can help to bring more lands under irrigation and have the potential to bring about growth levels that would be inclusive in nature. Creation of infrastructure is often the best foundation stone for a sustainable economic growth. Deposit growth: The rural economy can be further boosted by enhanced employment in the rural areas, who can be hired to help with the infrastructural development of the lands or in irrigation expansions. Widespread employment would be resulting in more income possibilities for more people, ultimately generating higher purchasing power for more people and creating demand for products (Clark et al., 2016). This would be a sure propeller for sustainable development in the rural areas. Population growth: If the growth conditions of the rural areas can be projected to become even stronger in the coming years and the development prospects are set to higher, population of the rural areas will increase (Folke Kautsky, 2014). A rural-urban migration is not uncalled for and may ultimately help the rural lands to have a demand for commodities entailing a market growth. Balanced development To create a sustainable development plan for the rural areas, there are many suggested models which are used. The microsphere model is one such method, which aims to promote a user-producer discovery process and enabling a diverse range of enterprises to identify the value-adding activities (Cont et al., 2015). This can be further enhancing to the market spontaneity, which only be resulting in additions to the positive effects of the already functioning market. Rural-Urban development balance A balanced rural-urban development planning is essential to promote overall growth of a country. In 2015, the UN had given ten cases which look into the balanced development from different perspectives, which include, spatial flow of the commodities and a div ersification of the expertise among the rural and urban places. The migration flow between the two places should be much more flexible and food security should be ensured to everyone (Stone Desai, 2015). Rural urbanization is one important way which can help to develop the infrastructure of the rural areas and promote economic sustainability. Reflector Government idea: The government is the foremost entity that plans for sustainable development and a more integrated and inclusive rural economic growth (Pearce, Barbier Markandya, 2013). Most of the policies and schemes that are implemented with a focus on the rural development are formulated by the government through the legislative structure. Public interest: Some collaborative projects are often undertaken by the government, which includes participation of the people or at times is solely initiated by public companies with objectives to enhance the infrastructure of rural areas. Urban-rural development planning Creating sustainable towns with vibrant rural areas is a challenge for any planning committee and has to be done with the utmost care. Variabilities in the differences in the environment, geographical features, economic and social conditions of the different rural and urban areas cause the plans to differ in some basic aspects but all have the common goal of promoting sustainable development (Barcus, 2014). The PLUREL project is an excellent case study of different EU nations and China, that offer some valuable insights about rural urban development planning and also about how may sustainable growth be achieved. Territorial cohesion, developing green compact cities, preserving blue and green infrastructure, promoting agricultural land and enhanced local production are only some of the most popular ones. Smart growth idea The Dumfries and Galloway rural project is one of the best examples of how to plan for rural development in a smart way. This area had many characteristics that are defining for rural lands, with declined rate of wages and, poverty and high population of aged people. Almost 85% of the firms in this place were classified as micro-businesses. The areas regional economic strategy is in alignment with the Europe2020 Strategy, which is focused to promote sustainable, smart and inclusive growth. Cooperative urban-rural development planning The Chengdu Model that was implemented for the development of the Chengdu district of China have been a glorious example of how can the rural and the urban localities collaborate to create development plans that benefit both the regions. It has been Chinas most productive province for over two thousand years. A dual economy theory was employed by the authorities to eradicate the persisting poverty that has been a malice to the province for decades. The case in China is not dissimilar to the rest of the world: stark economic contrast in the rural and urban area. The Chengdu Coordinated Urban-Rural Development Commission is charged with implementing multifaceted development plans for both the rural and semi-urban areas (Chen Scott, 2016). Conclusion From the above discussion, it is apparently clear that sustainable rural development is the only way which can make sure that an integrated and strong economy can be achieved and planning for this has to be done with absolute careful analyses, which is aimed to eradicate poverty from the rural areas in an all-encompassing manner: not just increased productivity of agricultural crops, but a development in the overall life and a better life quality is the only way that would boost the entire economy. References Ayre, G., Callway, R. (2013).Governance for sustainable development: a foundation for the future. Earthscan. Barcus, H. (2014). Sustainable development or integrated rural tourism? Considering the overlap in rural development strategies.Journal of Rural and Community Development,8(3). Briassoulis, H. (Ed.). (2017).Policy integration for complex environmental problems: the example of Mediterranean desertification. Taylor Francis. Chambers, R. (2014).Rural development: Putting the last first. Routledge. Chen, A., Scott, S. (2016). Rural development strategies and government roles in the development of farmers' cooperatives in China.Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development,4(4), 35-55. Clark, W. C., Tomich, T. P., Van Noordwijk, M., Guston, D., Catacutan, D., Dickson, N. M., McNie, E. (2016). Boundary work for sustainable development: natural resource management at the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,113(17), 4615-4622. Cont, F., Conte, A., Fiore, M. A., Djelveh, S. (2015). Consuming Landscape: an investigation of eco economic development strategies in rural areas.Connecting local and global food for sustainable solutions in public food procurement,14, 341. Folke, C., Kautsky, N. (2014). The role of ecosystems for a sustainable development of aquaculture. Griggs, D., Stafford-Smith, M., Gaffney, O., Rockstrm, J., hman, M. C., Shyamsundar, P., ... Noble, I. (2013). Policy: Sustainable development goals for people and planet.Nature,495(7441), 305-307. Holden, E., Linnerud, K., Banister, D. (2017). The imperatives of sustainable development.Sustainable Development,25(3), 213-226. Imran, S., Alam, K., Beaumont, N. (2014). Reinterpreting the definition of sustainable development for a more ecocentric reorientation.Sustainable Development,22(2), 134-144. Pearce, D., Barbier, E., Markandya, A. (2013).Sustainable development: economics and environment in the Third World. Routledge. Steurer, R., Hametner, M. (2013). Objectives and indicators in sustainable development strategies: similarities and variances across Europe.Sustainable Development,21(4), 224-241. Stone, B., Desai, G. M. (2015). Rural development strategies in China and India: a comparative perspective on fertilizer policy requirements for long term growth and transitional needs. Welford, R. (2013).Hijacking environmentalism: Corporate responses to sustainable development. Routledge. Wheeler, S. M., Beatley, T. (Eds.). (2014).Sustainable urban development reader. Routledge.
Friday, April 3, 2020
To Kill A Mockingbird I've never been to Alabama, but novelist Harper Lee made me feel as if I had been there in the long, hot summer of 1935, when a lawyer named Atticus Finch decided to defend an innocent black man accused of a horrible crime. The story of how the whole town reacted to the trial is told by the lawyer's daughter, Scout, who remembers exactly what it was like to be eight years old in 1935, in Macomb, Alabama. Scout is the reason I loved this book, because her voice rings so clear and true. Not only does she make me see the things she sees, she makes me feel the things she feels. There's a lot more going on than just the trial, and Scout tells you all about it. A man called Boo Radley lives next door. Very few people have ever seen Boo, but Scout and her friends have a lot of fun telling scary stories about him. The mystery about Boo Radley is just one of the reasons you want to keep turning the pages to find out what happens in To Kill a Mockingbird. Scout and her big brother, Jem, run wild and play games and have a great time while their father is busy with the trial. One of their friends is a strange boy called Dill. Actually Dill isn't really so strange once you get to know him. He says things like I'm little but I'm old, which is funny but also pretty sad, because some of the time Dill acts more like a little old man than a seven?year?old boy. To Kill a Mockingbird is filled with interesting characters like Dill, and Scout makes them all seem just as real as the people in your own hometown. Here's how Scout describes Miss Caroline, who wore a red?striped dress: She looked and smelled like a peppermint drop. Dill, Boo, and Jem are all fascinating, but the most important character in the book is Scout's father, Atticus Finch. You get the idea that Scout is writing the story down because she wants the world to know what a good man her dad was, and how hard he tried to do the right thing, even though the deck was stacked against him. The larger theme of the story is about racial intolerance, but Scout never tries to make it a lesson, it's simply part of the world she describes. That's why To Kill a Mockingbird rings true, and why it all seems so real. The trial of the wrongly accused Tom Robinson takes place during the time of segregation, when black people were not allowed to socialize with white people. In that era, when a white man said a black man committed a crime, the black man was presumed to be guilty. The law required that they have a trial, but everybody knew the defendant was going to be convicted. Atticus Finch, the quiet hero of the book, tries to persuade the jury that bigotry is wrong. His words are eloquent and heartfelt. He demonstrates that Tom Robinson couldn't possibly have assaulted the victim. Atticus even reveals the identity of the real villain, which enrages a very dangerous enemy. This act of courage endangers not only Atticus Finch but his family as well. They become the target of hate mongers and bigots. Even though the story took place many years ago, you get the idea that parts of it could happen today, in any town where people distrust and fear each other's differences. In a just world an innocent man should be found not guilty. But if you want to know what this particular jury finally decides and what happens to Scout, Jem, Dill, and Boo Radley and the rest of the people who live and breathe in To Kill a Mockingbird, you'll have to read the book! Book Reports
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Essay about Anatomy Notes Essay about Anatomy Notes 10/19 Notes 4. Recovery a) Excessive post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) 1. Oxygen reserves of myoglobin (oxygen storage molecule in muscle) 2. Lactic acid build up 3. Glycogen stores 4. ATP and creatine phosphate b) Heat production -only 40% of energy is used, the rest is lost as heat -sweat and heat radiation diffuse excess heat E. Strains, Tears, and Sprains 1. Strain-the muscle is over stretched and may be torn. Also called a Ã¢â¬Å"pulled muscle.Ã¢â¬ Inflammation of muscle can cause joints to be immobilized. 2. Tear- a tear can occur on the cartilage, muscle tendons, or ligament and also causes inflammation. 3. Sprain- the reinforcing ligaments of a joint are strained or torn. Healing takes longer because ligaments are poorly vascularized. I. Smooth Muscle A. Structure -spindle shaped cells of various sizes -only have endomysium which contain blood muscle and nerves -generally arranged in 2 layers 1. Longitudinal- fibers run parallel and constrict the organ and cause dilation 2. circular- fibers run around the circumference and cause constriction of the lumen and elongation -Peristalsis- is the alteration of circular and longitudinal contraction that moves substances through the lumen (intestines, uterus, bladder) EX: Chinese finger trap B. Microstructure -Varicosities-bulbous swellings of the autonomic nerve fibers -Caveolae-extensions of sarcolemma -actin/myosin in diagonal pattern (no sarcomere) -calmodulin instead of troponin for calcium binding -dense bodies-intermediate filaments act as an anchor -less sarcoplasmic reticulum -Myosin kinase-(phosphorylates the myosin) C. Contraction 1. Varicosities release a neurotransmitter across diffuse neuromuscular junction (synaptic cleft) 2. AP is generated across muscle fibers to initiate synchronized contraction 3. VR channels open, Ca++ flows into cytosol from extracellular fluid or SR 4. Ca++ binds to calmodulin (actin binding sites available) 5. Calmodulin activates myosin kinase 6. Myosin kinase activate myosin ATPase 7. Contraction coupling continues until Ca++ is released from calmodulin and is pumped back into SR and ECF. D. Same game, Different Name Smooth Skeletal -Varicosities-in diffuse -Axon terminal in synaptic cleft neuromuscular junction -Caveolae-extensions of the -T-tubules and terminal cisterns Sarcolemma -Most Ca++ comes from ECF -Most Ca++ comes from SR -Actin/Myosin in diagonal pattern - Actin/Myosin in horizontal pattern -calmodulin -dense bodies -myosin
Friday, February 21, 2020
China diabetes - Essay Example Some studies indicated an economic standard correlation to the incidence rate of diabetes. The incidence rate in China is 3.21% in 1996 quite higher in developing countries, it significantly increased in the following years. Diabetes study of Singapore is quite revealing. In 1975 the incidence rate of diabetes in Singapore was 1.19%; it gradually increased and reached to 4%, in 1992. In 17 years, the incidence rate of diabetes in Singapore increased to 8 times. The case studies from Singapore and Korea clearly indicate that if the rapid economic and social development of countries is directly related to rate of incidence of diabetes. The more country develops, the higher prevalence of diabetes occurs. In the same way, China is rapidly growing during the past two decades. This rapid growth has resulted in increase in the rate of modernization and urbanization. The incidence of prevalence of diabetes in Chinese adult increased three-fold from approximately 1% in 1980 to 3.2% in 1996. T he incidence of diabetes is increasing equally with increase in economic growth of the country. With increase of prevalence of diabetes in Asian Countries China and India are major contributors because of their large populations and growing economies. China is the second largest prevalence of diabetes in the region as greater urbanization, industrialization, and lifestyle changes, because of economic prosperity and increasing rates of obesity. Growth in economy has resulted in change in the life style and eating habits of Chinese people. Availability of fast foods and a inactive lifestyle, along with lack of physical activities and play, increase in use of television and computers, and mechanization have rapidly changed the behavior patterns of the urbanized young in many of Asia's large cities. Similar situation is prevalent in China. The epidemiological transition can be observed in its most complete form in developed countries and at it is at its earliest stages in developing countries. RESULTS OF VARIOUS SURVEYS/STUDIES First systematic and organized survey was conducted in the late 1970s in China in Shanghai City. It was recorded that incidence of diabetes is 1.07% in 1979 but it was doubled in 1989. Available data shows that the prevalence of diabetes in Shanghai has reached to 2.123% in 1989 while Chengdu was 1.354% in 1992. But in 1982, Chengdu City demonstrated its prevalence of diabetes as 1.29%, which was the highest rate. Another diabetes survey of 14 major cities was conducted by nationwide cooperative group in 1980, it shows the average of prevalence of diabetes was 0.67%. A study conducted in 1993 shows that, the prevalence of diabetes was 2.5% in China but its mortality has become the third largest disease cause death in China after cancer and cardiovascular disease. In 1997, the 11 cities diabetes survey shows the average of prevalence of diabetes was 3.21% that is 3 times double the rate in 1979. A study was carried out in 1996, under the WHO criteria and epidemiology method, a updated 11 major cities survey shows that the prevalence of diabetes was 3.21% in China, which increased almost 5 times compared to the first survey in 1980. It is estimated that the prevalen